Another Wretched Subject:
an example of symbolic number in Augustine’s De Genesi ad litteram with attention to the influence of Babylonian mathematics on Hebrew and Christian scriptures
by Richard Flavin
[Note: All dates are CE (Common or Christian Era) unless otherwise specified.]
Early Medieval image of Augustine refuting heretics and drawing of Mani (Manes), the Prophet of Parthia.
I. St. Augustine of Hippo: Neoplatonist philosopher and Christian numerologist.
Aurelius Augustinus (354-430) was born in the city of Tagaste, Proconsular Numidia, in the post-Constantine Roman era which was tolerant of Christianity. His pagan father arranged the beginning of his Roman education and his Christian mother is credited with some level of home-schooling. Augustine continued his studies in nearby Madaurus and finished in 371 at Carthage, where he taught rhetoric for several years. While residing in Carthage, Augustine became a follower of Manichaeism, a dualist syncretic cult founded a century before. Born into a Persian family who resided in Babylon and practiced Judaeo-Christian Elcesaitism, Mani (fl. 210–276) disagreed with some of their beliefs, spent several years traveling throughout Asia Minor and eastward to India, and became a renowned painter and calligrapher who charismatically preached a Gnostic blend of Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, and Buddhism. [Jackson 1938] Augustine’s pagan and Christian admixture of education and stylish religious experimentation were probably not atypical for its time in families with resources.
Augustine eventually found fault with Manichaeism and left North Africa for Rome in 383. After failing as an unaffiliated (or private) teacher of rhetoric, he applied for the position of court rhetorician in Milan, a post he assumed in 384. Augustine afterwards took up the study of Greek philosophy with an interest in Neoplatonism. [Note: Mani had claimed to have been Plato (and others) in a previous life.] After becoming a Christian in 387, Augustine returned to North Africa the following year. He was ordained a Christian priest in 391 CE, and made Bishop of Hippo Regius (mod. Annaba, Algeria) in the Roman province of Africa Procinsularis in 396. Pope Boniface VIII canonized Augustine in 1303 and designated his feast day as August 28th.
Medieval ms. of Augustine’s De genesi ad litteram libri duodecimi sec. VI (Castle Lucullano near Naples, Italy).
His commentaries on the Book of Genesis are known from two works, De genesi contra Manichaeos (ca. 389) and De genesi ad litteram imperfectum liber (ca. 401-415). [cf. Augustine 1988, 1991] Despite having rejected Greek philosophy for Christianity, he continued to rationalize and practiced a dilettantish numerology thinly disguised as scriptural exegesis. Augustine wrote:
With these facts in mind, I have worked out and [interpreted] the statements of the Book of Genesis in a variety of ways according to my ability; and, in interpreting words that have been written obscurely for the purpose of stimulating our thought, I have not rashly taken on one side against a rival interpretation which might possibly be better. I have thought that each one, in keeping with his powers of understanding, should choose the interpretation that he can grasp. Where he cannot understand Holy Scripture, let him glorify God and fear for himself. [De genesi ad litteram 1: 20, 40]
God, therefore, accomplished the works of His creation in six days, a perfect number of days. For thus it is written: And on the sixth day God finished the works He had made. And I am even more intrigued by this number when I consider the order of the works of creation. For they are ordered like the number six itself, which rises in three steps from its parts. One, two, and three follow in order, without the possibility of any other number being inserted; and these are the parts of which six is composed, one being a sixth, two being a third, and three being a half. [De genesi ad litteram 4: 2, 6]
Busts of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-43 BCE), a Roman politician and orator, and Plotinus, the founder of Neoplatonism.
While a young man in Carthage, Augustine read Cicero’s Hortensius, a work now lost which purportedly recommended the reader acquire a zeal for philosophy. Augustine’s enthusiasm waned with the claims of Manichaeism, but was resuscitated by the Neoplatonism of Plotinus (205-270). Neoplatonism combined Plato’s doctrine with Aristotle and Stoicism for a scientific philosophy of religion. Without regret, Gnostics playfully manipulated Judaism and Christianity, and Augustine explained inspired works with self-perceived reason and logic. Ironically, though performing essentially the same invented (or imaginary) exposition, the Gnostics were eventually declared heretics and hunted down, while Augustine was made a saint.
II. The Eastern Mediterranean complex and the diffusion of Babylonian mathematics.
The Eastern Mediterranean complex is the region which included the ancient and classical coastal societies of southeastern Europe, western Asia Minor, and northwestern Africa, and their associative and combined cultural interaction. Intersocietal diffusion (without acculturation theory) easily accommodates such boons to civilization as the invention of the acrophonic phonemic alphabet in an Eygpto-Canaanite setting, codification with Ugaritic, Phoenician adaptation, and subsequent diffusion (with improvement) to Greece. [Gordon 1970; Diringer 1948] The alphabet is arguably the best example of diffusion, with the foundations of our scientific approach to mathematics bullishly demanding priority.
[Note: A natural year calendar of twelve months was introduced by the ancient Sumerians (ca. 3000 BCE) and perpetuated by the subsequent inhabitants of Mesopotamia. Herodotus (484–425 BCE) incorrectly credited the Egyptians for the invention of the calendar of twelve months (Histories Bk. II). Such early evidence for the diffusion of the number twelve as symbolic is suggestive, but remains problematically tenuous until after the Babylonian zodiac (see below).]
Babylonian mathematics depicting chords of circles and "Pythagorean" triplets (ca. 17th c. BCE).
Though many ancients practiced a form of basic arithmetic, the various peoples and ruling dynasties of Mesopotamia centered around Babylon (mod. Al Hillah, Iraq) were the first to achieve correct solutions of engineering and accounting problems with repeatable mathematical applications. [Neugebauer 1969, 1975] Credited with the invention of place-value numerical notation, the Babylonians used a sexagesimal (based on 60) system, portions that are still in use today (our ‘minutes’ and ‘seconds’), and which readily enabled work with fractions, multiplication, square and cubic roots, as well as “Pythagorean" triplets a millennia before Pythagoras was born.
It remains a subjective assessment whether or not the schools founded by Thales (fl. 624 BC–546 BCE), Pythagoras (fl. 582 BC–507 BCE), or Xenophánes (fl. 570–480 BCE) were influenced by the diffusion of Babylonian mathematics. Hesiod, our earliest attestable Greek author, is familiar with Babylon, yet his agricultural calendar (in "Works and Days") seems independent or non-reliant on the diffusion of Babylonian mathematics. Shortly before, during, and immediately after the period of the Greco-Persian Wars (ca. 500-446 BCE), Babylonian mathematics diffused to Greece and others in the Eastern Mediterranean complex and its effects were profound, sublime and all levels in between.
The thematic and narrative changes in the maritime epic, The Argosy, demonstrate the importance of the Babylonian mathematical zodiac for the Greeks. It’s believed the myth of Jason and his Argonauts had its origin with a pirate tale of a successful raid from Thessaly into the Euxine (Black) Sea a few decades before the Trojan War (ca. 1250 BCE; Thomas 2005, Chap. II). Homer (fl. 800 BCE) mentions Euneus, who sent ships filled with a thousand measures of wine from Lemnos for Agamemnon and Menelaus, as the son of Jason (The Iliad, Bk. VII).
Kassite boundary stone with constellations (ca. 16th-12th c. BCE), Mul.Apin omen tablet (ca. 500 BCE) and zodiacal horoscopes. [Sachs 1952]
Three distinct refinements in The Argosy parallel important developments in Babylonian mathematical astrology. The success of the Mul.Apin systems which first plotted the Sun’s movement using schematic coordinates may be associated with the surviving fragments of the Naupaktia, written ca. 725-700 BCE (Matthews 1977; West 2003, pp. 33, 375-383), as the tale includes the beginning of ("solar") hero embellishment and allegory. Pindar's Fourth Pythian Ode, written to commemorate the victory of King Arkesilas of Cyrene in the chariot race at Delphi in 462 BCE, brings all of the essential events of The Argosy together for the first time (Robbins 1977), and may be regarded as an explicit introduction of the Babylonian zodiac (ca. 550-450 BCE; see below) into Hellenistic society within a century of its invention. Apollonius Rhodius’ epic poem, Argonautica (ca. 275-250 BCE) and the Katasterismoi (ca. 50-100 CE; Condos 1997), which aligns the major characters and events of The Argosy with the twelve zodiacal constellations, is comparable to the mid-3rd c. BCE final form of the Babylonian zodiac and the full emergence of a unique and functional Greek zodiac.
The mechanisms for Babylonian mathematics diffusing to Greece are too complex and numerous to adequately discuss here, though others have investigated the possible and probable methods and means. Assyrian texts of the second half of the 8th c. BCE refer to Ionia and provide the earliest direct evidence (Kuhrt 2002, p. 9), which also marked the beginning of the Greek Archaic Period (late 8th through 6th c. BCE) and a notable ‘orientalizing’ phase in Greek art and culture. After this point, other examples occur with the writings of Archilochus (fl. 680-645 BCE), and the use of the expressions “sacred Babylon” by Alkaios of Lesbos (fl. 630-580 BCE) and “foolish Nineveh” by Phocylides (fl. 560 BCE). [Kuhrt 1982; Burkett 2004] After The Persians of Aeschylus (472 BCE) and The Persika of Helianikos of Lesbos (fl. 490-405 BCE) the stimulus of diffusion on Greek culture becomes easily identifiable.
After Cyrus the Great ascended the Babylonian throne in 537 BCE, the Jews were allowed to return to their homeland. The rebuilding of the Jewish temple in Jerusalem began, along with a significant revision of earlier sacred writings which became The Torah. [Friedman 1989, 2003] Also, around this time, the Babylonian mathematical “zodiac,” a grid-map to accurately establish the positions of the planets and enable personal horoscopy (divination using planetary astrology), was invented. [Van der Waerden 1949, 1974] Though other methods of divination continued to be practiced, the technology of the mathematical zodiac spread quickly and various myths and legends (e. g. the number of Olympians and Heracles' 'Labors') were reworked to reflect a knowledge of the zodiac. [Krupp 1991, pp. 124-148]
The tradition of an ancient Hebrew confederacy of “twelve tribes,” ten of which are claimed to have been ‘lost’ after the conquest of the northern kingdom of Israel by Shalmaneser V and Sargon II in ca. 724-722 BCE, is now suspect as propaganda generated by the southern kingdom of Judah. [Finkelstein 2002] That an unknown number of Hebrew tribes existed and were annihilated or assimilated by the Assyrians is accepted; the claim of ‘twelve’, however, is now thought to be a symbolic number and was probably influenced by the popularity (or importance) of the ‘signs’ of the zodiac which were incorporated into Jewish tradition and sacred writing after the end of the Babylonian Exile period.
[Note: Various synagogues from the 2nd to 6th centuries of the Common Era (Dura-Europus, Khirbet Susiya,Yafia, Beth Shean, Husifa, and Na'aran, etc.) are clearly too late for consideration, as is the questionable remembrance from the Yalkut Shimoni (Shemot 418) which matches some zodiacal signs with certain tribes of Israel. These late uses of the zodiac are garish Greco-Roman adaptations and represent post-Second Temple period traditions.]
Archaeology assists the suggestion that even warring and embittered nations share information, yet some historians of science are still recklessly enamored with Classical Greek achievement and obfuscate when denying Babylonian influence.
Moreover in many cases the Babylonians had long been familiar with the data in question, and although we know little about the transmission of astronomical information to Greece, it is often just as likely that the Presocratic philosophers derived their knowledge directly or indirectly from the East as that they made the discoveries independently. [Loyd 1970, p. 81; Kirk 1983]
Again, in Neugebauer’s view, it is impossible in the present state of the evidence to trace the early history of the Babylonian lunar and planetary schemes of the Seleucid texts or to give any dates for their invention; nor do we know how far these were developed in the fifth and early-fourth centuries BC when they might have come to the notice of the Greek astronomers. Even the invention of the zodiac, which Neugebauer in common with most modern scholars takes to be of Babylonian origin, need not necessarily so. [Dicks 1970, p. 172; Neugebauer 1955]
The independent Greek innovations on Babylonian mathematics occurred several times throughout the Hellenic and Roman periods. [Fowler 1999] The zodiac (Gk zodiakos [kyklos], "circle of little animals"), though Babylonian in origin, was adapted and became integrated into Greek culture. As the Eastern Mediterranean complex (and beyond) embraced Hellenism, so too did the symbolism of the zodiac spread. [cf. Pingree 1997; Black 1985; Manilius 1977; Neugebauer 1959]
III. Symbolic numbers in Hebrew and Christian scriptures.
Medieval Christian depiction of Philo.
Nearly four hundred years before Augustine, during the early first century of the Common Era, a Hellenized Jew from Alexandria, Philo Judaeus (fl. 20 BCE-41 CE), developed an interest in Greek (Stoic) philosophy and interpreted the Book of Genesis. [Philo 1929, 1953] His efforts were not rewarded by ancient or modern Jewish scholars, unlike Augustine and his Christian readers. Concerning the number six in the Book of Genesis, Philo wrote:
II (2) And on the sixth day God finished his work which he had made." It would be a sign of great simplicity to think that the world was created in six days, or indeed at all in time; because all time is only the space of days and nights, and these things the motion of the sun as he passes over the earth and under the earth does necessarily make. But the sun is a portion of heaven, so that one must confess that time is a thing posterior to the world. Therefore it would be correctly said that the world was not created in time, but that time had its existence in consequence of the world. For it is the motion of the heaven that has displayed the nature of time. (3) When, therefore, Moses says, "God completed his works on the sixth day," we must understand that he is speaking not of a number of days, but that he takes six as a perfect number. Since it is the first number which is equal in its parts, in the half, and the third and sixth parts, and since it is produced by the multiplication of two unequal factors, two and three. And the numbers two and three exceed the incorporeality which exists in the unit; because the number two is an image of matter being divided into two parts and dissected like matter. And the number three is an image of a solid body, because a solid can be divided according to a threefold division. (4) Not but what it is also akin to the motions of organic animals. For an organic body is naturally capable of motion in six directions, forward, backwards, upwards, downwards, to the right, and to the left. And at all events he desires to show that the races of mortal, and also of all the immortal beings, exist according to their appropriate numbers; measuring mortal beings, as I have said, by the number six, and the blessed and immortal beings by the number seven.
The “All is number” maxim attributed to Pythagoras is difficult to ignore when numbers are expressed as letters of the Hebrew/Aramaic and Greek alphabets and intrinsically imbued with dualist symbolism (Heb gematria and Gk isopsephia). There’s no doubt that Philo enjoyed his copy of The Septuagint (Gk trans. of Hebrew scripture and other works; 3rd to 1st c. BCE). While mathematicians perform the actual work of “what is,” philosophers opt for symbolism and "what could be.”
Emerging between the Hellenization of Judaism and the soon to be multitudinous Gnostic sects and cults, early Christianity couldn’t resist symbolism. St. Paul wrote: “Which things are an allegory: for these are the two covenants; the one from the mount Sinai, which gendereth to bondage, which is Agar (Gal. 24; KJV). The early Christian authors also incorporated number symbolism to compliment the use of allegory.
St. Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyon.
Less than nine decades passed between the writing of The Apocalypse of John (Rev. 13:18) and its “number of the beast” and when St. Irenaeus (fl 135-202) suggested “hexakosioi, hexe:konta, hex” or “chi, xi, digamma” as possibly representing “Lateinos,” a Greek name for the Latins (Romans) with the values: L=30; a=1; t=300; e=5; i=10; n=50; o=70; s=200 and equaling 666 (Adv..haer. 5.30.3).
Prof. J. Dominic Crossan (De Paul, Professor Emeritus of Religious Studies) has examined the lack of attestation for Jesus’ “Twelve Apostles” and concluded the tradition “was created after [Jesus’] death among certain early Christian groups.” [Crossan 1994, p. 108.] The Babylonian Talmud records an interesting mention of Jesus and his disciples: “Our rabbis taught: Yeshu had five disciples - Mattai, Nakkai, Netzer, Buni, and Todah.” [Neusner 1984]
It may be that number symbolism was used in early Hebrew and Christian writings because neighboring (i. e. competing) religions such as Zoroastrianism and Mithraism had popularized astrology and Judaism and Christianity didn’t wish to be perceived as non-contemporary.
First paragraph of Neugebauer's defense of the study of ancient astrology. [Neugebauer 1951]
Not quite 60 years ago a brief exchange took place in the pages of the journal, Isis, between Prof. George Sarton (Harvard, History of Science) and Prof. Otto Neugebauer (Brown, History of Mathematics) which produced the (in)famous descriptive term “The Study of Wretched Subjects.” In the briefest of reviews, Sarton had discussed a book about Mandaean astrology which Neugebauer had earlier (and elsewhere) reviewed. [Sarton 1950; Neugebauer 1950] Sarton wrote:
The Mandaeans are Gnostic Christians of a peculiar kind, a small remnant of whom still exist in Lower Mesopotamia. They have their own language and script. The book of the Zodiac, edited and translated by Mrs. E. S. Drower is called by them Sfar Walwashia (Sfar, cf, Hebrew sefer, Arabic sifr, asfar); it is a wretched collection of omens, debased astrology and miscellaneous nonsense ultimately derived from Arabic, Greek, Persian and all the superstitious flotsam of the Near East, as was preserved in many languages. The author has used three MSS, the earliest of which dates from 1797. One MS (289 p,,) presumably her own, dated 1831, is completely reproduced in facsimile. To the English translation (which in many cases is tentative) have been added abundant notes, a glossary, a list of Mandaean place-names and an index. G.S.
Neugebauer had three articles mentioned on the same page as Sarton’s review of Drower, but with no further commentary other than the basic publishing information. A year after “The Study of Wretched Subjects” appeared, Sarton favorably reviewed Neugebauer’s The Exact Sciences in Antiquity, with only a few questions attached. [Sarton 1952] None of the questions concerned the Mandaeans, who are descended from the Judaeo-Christian Elcesaite cult, which Mani (the “Prophet of Parthia”) abandoned, and who have survived in southern Iraq until the present day (though recent numbers estimate less than 13,000 are still alive). [Clark 2005]
Recent photographs of Mandaean men, Mandaeans before fowl divination and Mandaeans at prayer.
The study of early religion can be a wretched subject, as well. Primary sources are few, copies are late and corrupt, yet wonderful gains may be made. At all levels of study, publishing and review, the process benefits us all. Yet, reviewers often get reviewed and Augustine’s work on the Book of Genesis shouldn’t be regarded any differently. In his final years, Augustine composed his Retractiones (ca. 426-428) and in it excused his De genesi ad litteram as the “first attempts to explain in detail and examine thoroughly the divine utterances.” [Retra. I, xvii, 1] Granting a generous amount of good intentions is not enough to let Augustine evade being accessed as a prose fabricator, weaving and stitching his argument together. Some, however, would call a fabricator a liar, and perhaps inquire why he would do such a non-scientific and irreligious thing.
Augustine. 1988. La Genesi [di] Sant’Agostino (in Latin and Italian). Nouva biblioteca agostiniana, Opere di Sant’Agostino 9;
1. Gen. intro. by A. Di Giovanni & A. Penna; trans. & notes by L. Carrozzi. Rome: Città Nuova Editrice.
Augustine. 1991. On Genesis (De genesi contra Manichaeos & De genesi ad litteram imperfectum liber). The Fathers of the
Church; v. 84. Trans. by Roland J. Teske. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press.
Black, Matthew and James C. Vanderkam. 1985. The Book of Enoch or I Enoch: A New English Edition: With Commentary
and Textual Notes (Studia in Veteris Testamenti Pseudepigrapha, No. 7). Appendix: “The 'Astronomical' Chapters of the
Ethiopic Book of Enoch (72 to 82)” by Otto Neugebauer. Leiden: E. J. Brill.
Burkett, Walter. 2004. Babylon, Memphis, Persepolis: Eastern Contexts of Greek Culture. Cambridge, MA: Harvard
Clark, Kate. 2005. “Iraq chaos threatens ancient faith.” BBC News (online). Sept. 20, 2005. Online here.
Condos, Theony. 1997. Star Myths of the Greeks and Romans : a sourcebook containing the Constellations of
Pseudo-Eratosthenes and the Poetic astronomy of Hyginus. Grand Rapids, MI: Phanes Press.
Crossan, John Dominic. 1994. Jesus : a revolutionary biography. San Francisco, CA: HarperSanFrancisco.
Dicks, D. R. 1970. Early Greek Astronomy to Aristotle. London: Thames & Hudson.
Diringer, David. 1948. The Alphabet: A Key to the History of Mankind. New York: Philosophical Library.
Finkelstein, Israel and Neil Asher Silberman. 2002. The Bible Unearthed : archaeology's new vision of ancient Israel and the
origin of its sacred texts. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Fowler, D. H. 1999. The Mathematics of Plato's Academy: a new reconstruction. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press.
Friedman, Richard Elliot. 2003. The Bible with Sources Revealed: a new view into the Five Books of Moses. San Francisco,
CA: HarperSanFrancisco. [
Friedman, Richard Elliot. 1989. Who wrote the Bible? New York: Harper & Row.
Gordon, Cyrus H. 1970. “The Accidental Invention of the Phonemic Alphabet.” Journal of Near Eastern Studies. 29, 3:
Jackson, A. V. 1938. “The Personality of Mani, the Founder of Manichaeism.” Journal of the American Oriental Society. 58;
Kirk, G. S., J. E. Raven and M. Schofield. 1983. The Presocratic Philosophers: a critical history with a selection of texts. 2nd
ed. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Krupp, Edwin C. 1991. Beyond The Blue Horizon: Myths and Legends of the Sun, Moon, Stars, and Planets. New York:
Kuhrt, Amélie. 1982. “Assyrian and Babylonian Traditions in Classical Authors: A Critical Synthesis.” Mesopotamien und
seine Nachbarn. Berlin: D. Reimer; pp. 539-553.
Kuhrt, Amélie. 2002. 'Greeks' and 'Greece' in Mesopotamian and Persian perspectives: a lecture delivered at New College,
Oxford, on 7th May, 2001. Oxford: Leopard's Head Press.
Lloyd, G. E. R. 1970. Early Greek Science: Thales to Aristotle. New York: W.W. Norton.
Manilius, Marcus. 1977. Astronomica. Loeb 469. Trans. and intro. by G. P. Goold. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University
Press. [Goold’s introduction to Roman astrology is especially insightful.]
Matthews, Victor J. 1977. "Naupaktia and Argonautika." Phoenix. 31, 3: 189-207.
Neugebauer, O. 1950. “Review of The Book of the Zodiac (Sfar Malwašia) D.C. 31 [by] E. S. Drower.” Journal of the
American Oriental Society. 70, 4: 309-313.
Neugebauer, O. 1951. “The Study of Wretched Subjects.” Isis. 42, 2: 111. Reprinted in: Neugebauer, O. 1983. Astronomy
and History : selected essays. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Neugebauer, O. and H. B. Van Hoesen. 1959. Greek Horoscopes. Philadelphia. PA: American Philosophical Society.
Neugebauer, O. 1969. The Exact Sciences in Antiquity. 2nd ed. New York: Dover Publications.
Neugebauer, O. 1975. A History of Ancient Mathematical Astronomy. 3 vols. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Neusner, Jacob. 1984. The Talmud of Babylonia: an American translation. Sanhedrin 43a. Chico, CA: Scholars Press.
Philo. 1929. "On the Creation. Allegorical Interpretation of Genesis 2 and 3." [Philo] Works. Vol. 1. Loeb 226. Trans. by F. H.
Colson & G. H. Whitaker. Cambridge, MA: Harvard.
Philo. 1953. Supplement I: Questions and answers on Genesis. Loeb 401. Trans. by Ralph Marcus. Cambridge, MA:
Pingree, David. 1997. From Astral Omens to Astrology: from Babylon to Bi-na-ker. Serie Orientale Roma. Rome: Istituto
italiano per l'Africa et l'Oriente.
Robbins, Emmet. 1975. "Jason and Cheiron: The Myth of Pindar's Fourth Pythian." Phoenix. 29, 3: 205-213.
Sachs, A. 1952. “Babylonian Horoscopes.” Journal of Cuneiform Studies. 6, 2: 49-75.
Sarton, George and Frances Siegel. 1950. “Seventy-Sixth Critical Bibliography of the History and Philosophy of Science and of
the History of Civilization (To May 1950).” 3. Babylonia and Assyria DROWSER, MRS ETHEL STEFANA (E. S. Stevens). The
book of the zodiac (Sfar Malwasia) D.C. 31. 218 p. +289 p. facs. (Oriental Translation Fund, 36). London, Royal Asiatic
Society, 1949. Isis. 41, 3/4: 374.
Sarton, George and Francis J. Carmody. 1952. “Review of The Exact Sciences in Antiquity [by] Otto Neugebauer.” Isis. 43, 1:
Thomas, Carol G. 2005. Finding People in Early Greece. Columbia and London: University of Missouri Press.
Van der Waerden, B. L. 1949. “Babylonian Astronomy. II. The Thirty Six Stars.” Journal of Near Eastern Studies. 8: 6-26.
Van der Waerden, B. L. 1974. Science Awakening II: the birth of astronomy. With Peter Huber. New York: Oxford University
West, Martin L. 2003. Greek Epic Fragments from the Seventh to the Fifth Centuries BC. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University
Recommended works not referenced in the text:
Dupuis, Charles François. 1984. The Origin of All Religious Worship. Trans. and intro. by Robert D. Richardson, Jr. New
York: Garland Pub. [1795 French work suggesting Jesus Christ as solar and zodiac hero.]
Graves, Robert and Raphael Patai. 2005. Hebrew Myths: the Book of Genesis. Ed. by Robert A. Davis. Manchester, ENG:
Carcanet Press. [What other work would distinguish between Bereshit Rabba and Bereshit Rabbati?]