Bridge Mix
By R. D. Flavin


Hmmm...  Chocolate covered goodies!

The moon don't move the tides, to wash me clean, why so unforgiving and why so cold, been a long time crossing Bridge of Sighs.  Cold wind blows, the Gods look down in anger, on this poor child.  Cold wind blows and Gods look down in anger, on this poor child.  Why so unforgiving and why so cold, been a long time crossing Bridge of Sighs.  “Bridge Of Sighs” by R. Trower (Bridge of Sighs, Robin Trower; Chrysalis Records 1974).

      Last week, while maneuvering through Boston’s Big Dig and its perpetually changing on and off ramps, I noticed a small group of Beantown’s less fortunate standing beneath an overpass sharing a bottle.  For some years, on occasion, I’ve seen other groups around the city camped out beneath bridges, but those people had blankets, large cardboard boxes and were apparently intent on staying put for awhile.  The boozing Bostonians underneath I-93 separating Southie and the South End were sharing a midday drink and likely disbanded and dispersed once the bottle was empty.  Seeing the drunks didn’t make me thirsty, though I did develop a craving for sweetness.  Specifically, I thought about Bridge Mix candy and Chicago, my hometown.  Okay, maybe my throat got a little parched at the time.  It’s about connections, the bridges we cross and what we’re avoiding beneath those bridges.


     
Chicago gets a Wonka for its candies.  Every big city has its local confectioners with a gloriously gooey tradition and Chi-Town leads any list as home to E. J. Brach and Sons and Fannie May (though the Brachs eventually moved just west of Chicago to what soon became the village of Cicero).  As I was growing up, when it came time to buy Mom a gift (Mothers’ Day, her birthday or Christmas), the choice was either a tiny bottle of Chanel № 5 or whatever size box of Fanny May Pixies ("Turtles") one could afford.  However, those were the special occasion gifts, as the standard selection for just being nice (read: apologizing for getting into trouble) was a box or bag of Brach’s Bridge Mix, a blend of almonds, peanuts, Brazil nuts, raisins, caramels, malted milk balls, and toffees all dipped in chocolate.  Mom liked the mix and one could sneak several easily enough without fear of getting caught.  The boozers in Boston didn’t appear to be overly concerned with getting caught drinking alcohol in public, unlike Chicago, whose drunks usually avoid the crowds.  Chicago has more bridges and, of course, more trolls to go under those bridges.

     The Chicago River, especially near the Loop, downtown Chicago's elevated train encircled business district, is crossed by quite a few bridges.  Approximately a dozen and a half years ago, I went through an urban climbing phase and, joined by a couple of like-minded (and younger) pals, scaled several of Chicago’s almost abandoned buildings, old wooden water-towers and climbed under some of its bridges.  Over a two-week period, we climbed an upright Lake Street bridge and underneath the North Clark Street and North Dearborn Street bridges.  The steel girders forming the span of the older bridges were spaced at an accesable distance apart which enabled a hand-over-hand traversal, much like using a playground jungle gym (a Chicago invention from 1920).  One night we tried the newer North Columbia Drive bridge (built in 1982), but the steel girders were slightly wider and the spacing was several inches farther apart, which made a swinging rhythmic à la monkey bars crossing way problematic and exhausting, much like having to walk up stairs which are slightly higher than normal causing one to trip and stumble often.  Two of us got about a quarter of the way across the Chicago River before becoming winded from the effort and turning back to Mom Terra.  Sometimes you cross the bridge and sometimes the bridge crosses you.

     A couple of days later, I happened to be in the neighborhood again with my curiosity and slightly bruised ego intact.  It was a pleasant early summer afternoon in Chicago and the sky was bright blue, the few clouds overhead were wispy and white like cotton candy, and the Chicago River was its usual odd shade of green.  As I approached the North Columbia Drive bridge from the east, leaving the sidewalk and taking to the dirt, I was surprised to see small piles of construction debris and unused materials, as the bridge had been completed and opened several years before.  I was even more surprised to see the trolls, who were undoubtedly surprised as well to see me.

     Three or four homeless guys looked up at me, as one, and time sort of ...coughed.  They had brown and gray faces, worn from the weather and weary from all manner of assaults, with eyes showing awareness, but which revealed no telling anticipation of what was to come.  I offered a “Hello” and explained that I was just passing through the area and became interested in the bridge.  There was no response from any of them.  If my explanation mattered, it didn’t show.  I’d worked at various conventions for over four years at that point and I’d seen and met many of Chicago’s less fortunate at the hotels and auditoriums pushing empty freight, yet these trolls had a different look and way about them.  That’s when I noticed they were gathered around a fire with a steaming five gallon can over it.  It was a hobo hot-pot and I was disturbing them.

     The difference between alcoholics, addicts, the mentally enfeebled and emotionally infirm who are homeless and trolls is that while all occasionally stop for shelter under bridges, the homeless are frequently there for getting high while trolls are more often concerned with eating.  As to what trolls eat, I’d venture that it’s a matter of taste and convenience.  It’s sad, yet familiar, to think about trolls.  They’re always out there, however we seldom have the opportunity to consider them.

     A grammar to discuss the Faerie realm would require words culled from many languages, folk traditions and mythologies, with special attention shown to European origins.  Such common terms as elf, dwarf and troll have been previously used interchangeably, though today most have preconceived images of each unique and legendary being.  The heroic fantasy writings of Prof. John Ronald Reuel Tolkien (Oxford, Anglo-Saxon & English language and literature) have greatly influenced and in some cases changed our definitions of certain magical creatures (Tolkien 1964).  Though some still regard an ‘elf’ as a tiny mischievous imp, one of Santa’s helpers or even as forest bakers of fine cookies, in Tolkien’s fiction elves became tall, noble and immortal.  With the widespread success of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings (and related works), Tolkien re-envisioned known fairies and introduced a few of his own.


Ca. 1937 ink drawing of William, Bert and Tom, "The Trolls," before turning to stone by J. R. R. Tolkien.

And this is what he saw. Three very large persons sitting round a very large fire of beech-logs.  They were toasting mutton on large spits of wood, and licking the gravy off their fingers.  There was a fine toothsome smell.  Also there was a barrel of good drink at hand, and they were drinking out of jugs.  But they were trolls.  Obviously trolls.  Even Bilbo, in spite of his sheltered life, could see that: from the great heavy faces of them, and their large size, and the shape of their legs, not to mention their language, which was not drawing-room fashion at all, at all.  “Mutton yesterday, mutton today, and blimey, if it don’t look like mutton again tomorrow,” said one of the trolls.  From The Hobbit or There and Back Again (Tolkien 1937).


     Tolkien had been developing invented languages for elves and "gnomes" for more than a dozen years, had composed several versions of a mariner epic and other narratives for a proposed “Book of Lost Tales” which could have provided England with an artificial mythology, and had told and sketched out a few children’s stories for his family, when in 1928 he wrote on a blank page of a student exam paper, “In a hole in the ground lived a hobbit.”  For his mythology of Middle Earth (ON Miðgarðr, PIE *medhyo-ghartos, ME Middellærd or Middle-earth), Tolkien populated his fantasy with various peoples (elves, dwarves, ents and men), a Supreme Deity attended by an angelic race (and those attendants associated with beings sometimes called “wizards”), evil creatures (goblins or orcs, wargs, dragons and balrogs) and unique monsters such as giant spiders.  Other mythological characters of Tolkien’s such as hobbits, trolls and the Beornings (Beorn, the shape-shifter, and his family), and the mysterious magical fop, Tom Bombadil, seem related somehow, if only ...we could figure it out.   


Stone-trolls from the 1977 animated television film, The Hobbit, by Arthur Rankin Jr. and Jules Bass.

     A pre-history for hobbits has never been explicitly put forth, though its been suggested that hobbits were related to men (only smaller, faster, quieter, and perhaps more clever) and at some time just before our memories reach, hobbits became men and as such are with us to this day.  In Tolkien’s mythology, hobbits represent a part of ourselves closer to the land, its plants, animals, rivers, rocks, food, fun and all that the land has to offer.  When some live so close to, indeed become part of, the land ...they are often changed.  Those who followed the animals too closely, the shape-shifters, have been warriors, criminals, heroes and monsters.  Beorn and his family represent that part of ourselves that, occassionaly, becomes more animal than man.  Trolls live on the periphery of civilization, animal-like, and often steal to survive (though some appear as helpers and builders and attempt to earn their way).  Bombadil?  Everyone needs someone to look after them –  even those that live on the 'Borderlands' (Duerr 1985; Flavin 2008).  Tolkien as a philologist, historian and writer enjoyed Middle Earth and gave his readers much to enjoy, study and debate, befitting ...The Lord of the Rings as voted the best book of the twentieth century.

     Most hold that Beorn (ON björn, MHG *bern-oz = L ferus, OE bera or bear) was based on Bjorn from "The Saga of Hrolf Kraki," though I would add that he was a 'berserker', one who wears a “bear-shirt” and fights fiercely, probably under the influence of a solanaceae paste, like Achilles, centaurs, Cuchulain, werewolves and flying witches.  In a discussion on the Middle English run, Fritz Metzger, a Byrn Mawr College philologist (Metzger 1933) mentioned Ps. R beornan (+ North L. beorna, bearna),  allowed for comparisons of “to run” and “to burn” along with troll (OE trollen or “to roll” = G trollen or “to drag about” [RDF – possibly associated with F trotter or “to trot”]).  Beorn, Tolkien’s shape-shifter, is originally from the mountains, just like ...trolls.

     Several years before I became interested in Tolkien’s Middle Earth, I was familiar with Midgard, the Norse term for our land with far-away Asgard being the mythological home of the Northern gods, whose defensive wall according to Marvel Comics (i.e. Journey Into Mystery featuring The Mighty Thor, which also contained the short feature, “Tales of Asgard”) was built by a troll, one of the five “races” of Asgard.  The troll, as a builder, may be part of an ancient motif of gods breaking their agreements (Fontenrose  1983) or reflective of medieval legends of helper-demons building Christian churches and acting as nurses or companions (Puhvel 1961; Puhvel 1987).



Alan Lee's watercolor paintings of Tolkien's three Stone-trolls before and after turning to stone.

     Trolls have been associated with giants and dwarves through disguise or deception, but also by error or purposeful alteration of the narrative.  Among Tolkien’s sources for his English mythology (though he denied it) was the opera tetralogy by Richard Wagner, Der Ring des Nibelungen, which was meant to be an epic re-telling of German mythology.  The stories overlap, run parallel, crash against one another and both will delight scholars for untold centuries.  Among Wagner’s characters who are most deserving of investigation are the giants Fasolt and Fafner, and the dwarves Alberich and Mime.  The giants who built Wagner’s Valhalla (Asgard) were originally trolls (Fontenrose 1983) and the dwarves who stole a fabulous treasure hoard and made a magical ring were also originally dark elves, fairies or trolls.  Trolls, like Tolkien’s Bill, Bert and Tom, are secondary characters, unlike elves, dwarves, hobbits, etc., who get much more attention.

     Yet, before Tolkien and Wagner, before rings and treasures, trolls were associated with bridges.  Wagner published a couple of pamphlets outlining his new German mythology in the late 1840s (Wagner 1848; Wagner 1849), categorized as during his “revolutionary” period, was familiar with the German folk-tales of Jacob Grimm and his brother, Wilhelm (Grimm 1835), but may not have known about the previously published Norse folk-tales of Asbj
ørnsen and Moe (Asbjørnsen 1847), which featured a tale of a troll beneath a bridge and his appetite for goats.


An illustration from "The Three Billy Goats Gruff."

     Once upon a time there were three billy goats, who were to go up to the hillside to make themselves fat, and the name of all three was "Gruff."
     On the way up was a bridge over a cascading stream they had to cross; and under the bridge lived a great ugly troll , with eyes as big as saucers, and a nose as long as a poker.
     So first of all came the youngest Billy Goat Gruff to cross the bridge.
     "Trip, trap, trip, trap! " went the bridge.
     "Who's that tripping over my bridge?" roared the troll .
     "Oh, it is only I, the tiniest Billy Goat Gruff , and I'm going up to the hillside to make myself fat," said the billy goat, with such a small voice.
     "Now, I'm coming to gobble you up," said the troll.
     "Oh, no! pray don't take me. I'm too little, that I am," said the billy goat. "Wait a bit till the second Billy Goat Gruff comes. He's much bigger."
     "Well, be off with you," said the troll.
     A little while after came the second Billy Goat Gruff to cross the bridge.
     Trip, trap, trip, trap, trip, trap, went the bridge.
     "Who's that tripping over my bridge?" roared the troll.
     "Oh, it's the second Billy Goat Gruff , and I'm going up to the hillside to make myself fat," said the billy goat, who hadn't such a small voice.
     "Now I'm coming to gobble you up," said the troll.
     "Oh, no! Don't take me. Wait a little till the big Billy Goat Gruff comes. He's much bigger."
     "Very well! Be off with you," said the troll.
     But just then up came the big Billy Goat Gruff .
     Trip, trap, trip, trap, trip, trap! went the bridge, for the billy goat was so heavy that the bridge creaked and groaned under him.
     "Who's that tramping over my bridge?" roared the troll.
     "It's I! The big Billy Goat Gruff ," said the billy goat, who had an ugly hoarse voice of his own.
     "Now I 'm coming to gobble you up," roared the troll.

Well, come along! I've got two spears,
And I'll poke your eyeballs out at your ears;
I've got besides two curling-stones,
And I'll crush you to bits, body and bones.

     That was what the big billy goat said. And then he flew at the troll, and poked his eyes out with his horns, and crushed him to bits, body and bones, and tossed him out into the cascade, and after that he went up to the hillside. There the billy goats got so fat they were scarcely able to walk home again. And if the fat hasn't fallen off them, why, they're still fat; and so,

Snip, snap, snout.
This tale's told out.

     The group of 2008 candidates for president contains trolls, a condition that apparently crosses Democratic and Republican party lines.  Rep. Dennis Kuchinich (Ohio, D), now in his 60s, began trolling for companionship while running for president in 2004.  He recently met and married Elizabeth Harper, a British woman in her late 20s with a tongue stud, after spending a romantic night with Harper at Shirley McLaine's house.  His chances of winning in 2008 are about the same as in 2004, that is around zero to none.  He's a troll for pretending to help the American political process, offers descension and criticism with negativity and little praise for the process.  Kuchinich has succesully trolled for a bride, now he's after campaign contributions, tax dollars, and more microphone time.  He may well be a vegan, though his appetite for attention is ethically murderous.


 Trolls: Kuchinich and bride, Romney and bicycle, and Thompson with Bebe.

     Another political troll pretending to run for president is the mega-millionaire and former governor (MA, R; 2003-2007), Willard Mitt Romney.  Mitt’s a Mormon, avoided service during the Vietnam War by being a missionary bicycling around France, and has recently elicited gasps from a Boston Globe newspaper series of articles, one of which detailed a prior vacation to Canada with the family dog caged on the roof of the car and shitting itself from fear.  Mitt hoards his treasure gained from union busting and takeovers and will likely run for some other office in the future, either in Michigan where he was born or in Utah where he went to BYU (before attending Harvard).

     And, then, there’s former senator Frederick Dalton "Fred" Thompson (TN, R; 1994-2003), accomplished lawyer and film and television actor, who has recently established a so-called exploratory committee to determine if American voters will say, “I’m with Fred!”  He’s trolling; ...‘nuff said.

     I’m not tempted to join the trolls under the bridge at this time and will continue to follow the advice of Anthony Kiedes and the other Red Hot Chili Peppers (Kiedes et al. 1991).   Politics?  Health care and education.  Oh, and create a UN-backed Kurdistan with a zero-tolerance policy regarding ethnic, religious and “honor” killings, give the eastern third of Iraq to Iran in exchange for abandoning their nuclear goals and renouncing their plans to destroy Israel, and also create a Syrian-run reservation in Iraq’s western wasteland for Baathists and Sunnis.  Just a thought...  But, I’ll leave policy to the professionals.  For now, it’s summertime, though living without Bridge Mix candy or a copy of The Children of Húrin is rough, but at least I’ve got my basic health care, though I'd rather have basic health.  I suppose if things get worse there's always under the bridge, perhaps near a KFC or a Wendy's.

Bibliography:
Asbjørnsen, Peter Christen.  1847.  Norwegische Volksmährchen, gesammelt von P. Asbjörnsen und Jörgen Moe. Deutsch von Friederich
  Bresemann. 2 vols. (published as one).  Berlin: Verlegt von M. Simion.
Duerr, Hans Peter.  1985.  Dreamtime: Concerning the Boundary between Wilderness and Civilization.  Translated by Felicitas Goodman
  (from 1978 German original).  New York: Basil Blackwell.  See also: Duerr, Hans Peter.  1988.  Nacktheit und Scham: Der mythos vom
  Zivilisationsprozess
.  Frankfort: Suhrkamp.       
Flavin, Richard.  2008.  “Rage and Transformation in Early European Gender Rituals.”  Flavin’s Corner ('Twisted History').  Forthcoming.  See:
  http://www.flavinscorner.com/twist.htm.
Fontenrose, Joseph.  1983.  "The Building of the City Walls: Troy and Asgard."  The Journal of American Folklore.  96, 379: 53-63.
Grimm, Jacob.  1835.  Deutsche Mythologie.  Göttingen: In der Dieterichschen Buchhandlung.  Their “fairy tales” are online at:
  http://www.fln.vcu.edu/grimm/grimm_menu.html.
Kiedes, Anthony et al.  1991.  “Under the Bridge.”  Words and music by Anthony Kiedes, Flea, John Frusciate & Chad Smith.  Blood Sugar Sex
  Magik
.  Red Hot Chili Peppers.  Warner Bros.  Words: “Sometimes I feel like I don't have a partner.  Sometimes I feel like my only friend.  Is
  the city I live in, the city of angels; lonely as I am, together we cry.  I drive on her streets ‘cause she's my companion, I walk through her hills
  'cause she knows who I am.  She sees my good deeds and she kisses me windy.  I never worry, now that is a lie.  I don't ever want to feel like I
  did that day.  Take me to the place I love, take me all the way.  It's hard to believe that there's nobody out there, it's hard to believe that I'm all
  alone.  At least I have her love, the city she loves me.  Lonely as I am together we cry.  I don't ever want to feel like I did that day.  Take me to
  the place I love, take me all that way.  Under the bridge downtown, is where I drew some blood.  Under the bridge downtown, I could not get
  enough.  Under the bridge downtown, forgot about my love.  Under the bridge downtown, I gave my life away.”
Mezger, Fritz.  1933.  “Middle English Run.”  PMLA.  48, 4: 1036-1040.
Puhvel, Martin.  1961.  “The Legend of the Church-Building Troll in Northern Europe.”  Folklore.  72, 4: 567-583.
Puhvel, Martin.  1987.  The Mighty She-Trolls of Icelandic Saga and Folktale.”  Folklore.  98, 2: 175-179.
Tolkien, J. R. R.  1964.  “On Fairy-Stories.”  In Tree and Leaf.  London: George Allen & Unwin.  See also: Tolkien, J. R. R.  1965.  Tree and
  Leaf
.  Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.  Online at: http://www45.homepage.villanova.edu/thomas.w.smith/on%20fairy%20stories.htm.
Wagner, Richard.  1848.  Der Nibelungen-Mythus als Entwurf zu einem Drama.  Sämtliche Schriften und Dichtungen.  Online at:
  http://users.belgacom.net/wagnerlibrary/prose/wagnibe.htm.
Wagner, Richard.  1849.  Die Wibelungen. Weltgeschichte aus der Sage. Leipzig: Wigand.  Online at:
  http://users.belgacom.net/wagnerlibrary/prose/wagwibel.htm.

The OED listings for troll:
troll, n.1 Also 6 trowell, 7 trole, troul, trowle, 7-­9 trowl. [app. f. TROLL v.; but in some uses the derivation is uncertain.] 1. The act of trolling; a going or moving round; routine or repetition. 1705 Rowe Biter i. i, Make up the Troll of the Sentence, as merrily conceited Persons are us’d to do. 1790 Burke Fr. Rev. 274 The troll of their categorical table might have informed them that there was something else... besides substance and quantity. 2. A song the parts of which are sung in succession; a round, a catch. 1820 W. Irving Sketch Bk., Little Britain (1865) 306 The famous old drinking trowl from Gammer Gurton’s Needle. 1856 Kane Arct. Expl. I. xix. 233 It is sad..to miss..the joyous troll of his ballads. † 3. A little wheel; spec. an angler’s reel or winch on a fishing-rod. Obs. [Cf. OF. trueil (Godef. Compl.), F. treuil windlass, winch.] 1570 Levins Manip. 57/15 A Trowell, rotula. 1662 Venables Experienced Angler iv. 47 With your troul wind up your line till you think you have it almost streight. 1670-­1 Act 22 & 23 Chas. II, c. 25 §6 If any person... shall... use any... Nett... Angle, Haire Noose, Troll or Speare. 4. Angling. a. The method of trolling in fishing for pike, etc.: see TROLL v. 13. 1681 J. Chetham Angler’s Vade-m. xli. §7 (1689) 312 It’s not so good for the Trowl as snap. 1688 R. Holme Armoury ii. 324/2 Trowl, a fishing for a Pike: and this is by walking, and the line to run on a winch, that it may be winded up, or let out at pleasure. 1794 Sporting Mag. III. 247 Both at trowl and snap, cut away one of the fins. 1847 T. Brown Mod. Farriery 902 At both troll and snap some persons have two or more swivels to their line. b. A lure used in trolling, as a trolling-spoon (see TROLLING vbl. n. 4). 1869 Cornh. Mag. Apr. 419 The many artificial trolls which have been..invented for salmon and trout-angling. 5. A kind of low cart: = TROLLEY n. 1. local. 1663 [implied in trollful: see below]. 1810 Hull Improv. Act 56 Any cart waggon sledge troll dray. 1870 Murray’s Handbk. E. Counties 224/2 They [the ‘rows’ of Yarmouth] are traversed by..a sort of horse-wheelbarrow, called ‘trolls’ or ‘trolly-carts’. 1882 Buckland Notes & Jottings 192 When the trawlers [at Yarmouth] come in laden with fish they transfer them to very large boats..and thence into trolls, which are backed into the water. 6. attrib. and Comb.: troll-line = trawl-line (see TRAWL n. 4); troll-plate (see quot.). 1888 Earll in Goode Amer. Fishes 195 The smack fishermen of Charleston catch a few on *troll-lines during..spring and early summer. 1877 Knight Dict. Mech., *Troll-plate (Machinery), a rotating disk employed to effect the simultaneous convergence or divergence of a number of objects; such as screw-dies in a stock, or the jaws of a universal chuck. Hence 'trollful, as much as fills a troll (sense 5). 1663 P. Henry Diaries & Lett. (1882) 143 August 1. Hay carry’d in out of ye great meadow, three trolefuls.

troll, n.2 Also trold, trolle. See also TROW n.4 [a. ONorse and Swed. troll, Da. trold (whence Da. trylla, trylde, Sw. trolla to charm, bewitch, ON. trolldómr witchcraft). (Adopted in English from Scandinavian in the middle of the 19th c.; but in Shetland and Orkney, where the form is now TROW (in 1616 troll), it has survived from the Norse dialect formerly spoken there.)]  a. In Scandinavian mythology, One of a race of supernatural beings formerly conceived as giants, now, in Denmark and Sweden, as dwarfs or imps, supposed to inhabit caves or subterranean dwellings: see quotations, and cf. TROW n.4  1616 Dittay Sheriff Court Shetland 2 Oct. (Jam. s.v. Trow), The said Catherine for airt and pairt of witchcraft and sorcerie, in hanting and seeing the Trollis ryse out of the kyrk yeard of Hildiswick. 1851 Borrow Lavengro xxx. (1911) 188 A laidly Trold has dragged it there. 1856 Emerson Eng. Traits, Ability Wks. (Bohn) II. 34 The Scandinavian fancied himself surrounded by Trolls–a kind of goblin men, with vast power of work and skilful production. 1865 Baring-Gould Werewolves iv. 40 In the Hrolfs Saga Kraka, we meet with a troll in a boar’s shape, to whom divine honours are paid. 1865 Whittier Tent on Beach, Kallundborg Church 14 But the sly Dwarf said, ‘No work is wrought By Trolls of the Hills, O man, for naught.’ 1867 Brande & Cox Dict. Sc., etc. s.v., These Trolls are superior to man in strength and stature, but far beneath him in mind. 1869 H. F. Tozer Highl. Turkey II. 273 A boy’s escape from a Troll or an enchanted horse. b. attrib. and Comb. That is a troll, as troll-maiden, -wife, -woman; belonging to or inhabited by trolls, as troll-garden, -land, -marsh; also troll-like adj.; troll-bull, a supernatural being in the form of a bull; troll-drum, a drum used in Lappish magical rites; trollman, a magician or wizard. 1902 Folk-Lore June 185 On ‘Old Holy Kings’ Night’ black *troll-bulls come up from the sea and visit the byres. 1894 Jrnl. Hellenic Stud. XIV. 270 In Lapland..designs of this character ornamented the *troll-drums of the magicians till within a recent period. 1864 Kingsley Rom. & Teut. i. (1875) 1 Fancy to yourself a great *Troll-garden. 1886 J. Corbett Fall of Asgard I. 65 This is no *Troll-land, but a fair place that Thor has kept for you. 1954 J. R. R. Tolkien Two Towers iv. 66 A large Man-like, almost *Troll-like, figure. 1978 Trans. Yorks. Dial. Soc. lxxviii. 18 Joseph is a troll-like figure, the foil to Heathcliff’s gigantic, elemental being. 1886 J. Corbett Fall of Asgard 36 They had wanted to drive her away for a *troll-maiden. 1865 Baring-Gould Werewolves viii. 108 Property...imparted to them by the *Trollmen. 1886 J. Corbett Fall of Asgard I. 59 Over the lake...and over the *Troll marsh to the valley. 1851 Thorpe Northern Mythol. I. 113 Hedin met in the forest a *Troll-wife riding on a wolf, with a rein formed of serpents. 1862 H. Marryat Year in Sweden II. 390 Herve Ulf, on his way to matin-song, was accosted by a *Trolle woman.


Related material:
 
6-1-01 Roberts’ Graves
7-20-01 Collecting One’s Self 
9-21-01 The Two Towers
September 2002 Missing Girls
December 2002 Adult Fantasy  
Flavin’s Corner Tolkien Letter


Letting out more line,
Rick

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